Openness is crucial for cumulative science. PDFs on this page are made available under the Taverne amendment to Dutch copyright law, which allows researchers based in The Netherlands to openly share their publicly funded work.

💡 Spotlight

Beyond Single-Mindedness (doi, pdf, website) — A fundamental fact about human minds is that they are never truly alone. Writing as a transdisciplinary collective assembled from across the cognitive sciences, we highlight the opportunity for a figure-ground reversal that puts interaction at the heart of cognition.

From text to talk (doi, pdf) — Linguistically diverse conversational corpora are a crucial yet largely untapped resource for computational linguistics and language technology. We show how such data harbours important insights about turn-taking, sequential structure and social action.

Between Sound and Speech (doi, pdf) — You can learn a lot about language by looking at what’s not considered language. In an area usually negatively defined as ‘nonlexical’ I introduce the notion of liminal signs. Liminal signs are surprisingly important to the smooth running of the interactional machinery.


Dingemanse, M. (2024). Interjections at the heart of language. Annual Review of Linguistics. doi: 10.1146/annurev-linguistics-031422-124743 PDF
Lutzenberger, H., de Wael, L., Omardeen, R., & Dingemanse, M. (2024). Interactional infrastructure across modalities: a comparison of repair initiators and continuers in British Sign Language and British English. Sign Language Studies. doi: 10.31219/ PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2023). Interjections. In E. van Lier (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Word Classes. Oxford University Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2023). Ideophones. In E. van Lier (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Word Classes. Oxford University Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Enfield, N. J. (2023). Interactive repair and the foundations of language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2023.09.003 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Liesenfeld, A., Rasenberg, M., Albert, S., Ameka, F. K., Birhane, A., Bolis, D., Cassell, J., Clift, R., Cuffari, E., De Jaegher, H., Dutilh Novaes, C., Enfield, N. J., Fusaroli, R., Gregoromichelaki, E., Hutchins, E., Konvalinka, I., Milton, D., Rączaszek-Leonardi, J., … Wiltschko, M. (2023). Beyond Single-Mindedness: A Figure-Ground Reversal for the Cognitive Sciences. Cognitive Science, 47. doi: 10.1111/cogs.13230 PDF
Liesenfeld, A., Lopez, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2023). The timing bottleneck: Why timing and overlap are mission-critical for conversational user interfaces, speech recognition and dialogue systems. Proceedings of the 24th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue. doi: 10.1145/3571884.3604316 PDF
Liesenfeld, A., Lopez, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2023). Opening up ChatGPT: tracking openness, transparency, and accountability in instruction-tuned text generators. ACM Conference on Conversational User Interfaces (CUI ’23), July 19-21, Eindhoven. PDF
McLean, B., Dunn, M., & Dingemanse, M. (2023). Two measures are better than one: combining iconicity ratings and guessing experiments for a more nuanced picture of iconicity in the lexicon. Language and Cognition, 1–24. doi: 10.1017/langcog.2023.9 PDF
Rasenberg, M., Amha, A., van Koppen, M., van Miltenburg, E., de Rijk, L., Stommel, W., & Dingemanse, M. (2023). Reimagining language: Towards a better understanding of language by including our interactions with non-humans. Linguistics in the Netherlands, 40, 309–317. doi: 10.1075/avt.00095.ras PDF
Rossi, G., Dingemanse, M., Floyd, S., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Kendrick, K. H., Zinken, J., & Enfield, N. J. (2023). Shared cross-cultural principles underlie human prosocial behavior at the smallest scale. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 6057. PDF
Van Hoey, T., Thompson, A. L., Do, Y., & Dingemanse, M. (2023). Iconicity in Ideophones: Guessing, Memorizing, and Reassessing. Cognitive Science, 47(4), e13268. PDF
Winter, B., Lupyan, G., Perry, L. K., Dingemanse, M., & Perlman, M. (2023). Iconicity ratings for 14,000+ English words. Behavior Research Methods. doi: 10.3758/s13428-023-02112-6 PDF


Dideriksen, C., Christiansen, M. H., Tylén, K., Dingemanse, M., & Fusaroli, R. (2022). Quantifying the interplay of conversational devices in building mutual understanding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. doi: 10.1037/xge0001301 PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Liesenfeld, A. (2022). From text to talk: Harnessing conversational corpora for humane and diversity-aware language technology. Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), 5614–5633. doi: 10.18653/v1/2022.acl-long.385 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Liesenfeld, A., & Woensdregt, M. (2022). Convergent cultural evolution of continuers (mmhm). The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Language Evolution (JCoLE), 61–67. PDF
Eijk, L., Rasenberg, M., Arnese, F., Blokpoel, M., Dingemanse, M., Doeller, C. F., Ernestus, M., Holler, J., Milivojevic, B., Özyürek, A., Pouw, W., van Rooij, I., Schriefers, H., Toni, I., Trujillo, J., & Bögels, S. (2022). The CABB dataset: A multimodal corpus of communicative interactions for behavioural and neural analyses. NeuroImage, 264, 119734.
Heesen, R., Fröhlich, M., Sievers, C., Woensdregt, M., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). Coordinating social action:  A primer for the cross-species investigation of communicative repair. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 377(1859), 20210110. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2021.0110 PDF
Liesenfeld, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). Building and curating conversational corpora for diversity-aware language science and technology. Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2022), 1178–1192. PDF
Liesenfeld, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). Bottom-up discovery of structure and variation in response tokens (‘backchannels’) across diverse languages. Proceedings of Interspeech 2022, 1126–1130. doi: 10.21437/Interspeech.2022-11288 PDF
Lopez, A., Liesenfeld, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). Evaluation of Automatic Speech Recognition for Conversational Speech in Dutch, English and German: What Goes Missing? Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Natural Language Processing (KONVENS 2022). PDF
Rasenberg, M., Özyürek, A., Bögels, S., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). The Primacy of Multimodal Alignment in Converging on Shared Symbols for Novel Referents. Discourse Processes. doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2021.1992235 PDF
Rasenberg, M., Pouw, W., Özyürek, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). The multimodal nature of communicative efficiency in social interaction. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 19111. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-22883-w PDF
Winter, B., Sóskuthy, M., Perlman, M., & Dingemanse, M. (2022). Trilled /r/ is associated with roughness, linking sound and touch across spoken languages. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1035. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-04311-7 PDF


Dingemanse, M., Lier, E. van, & Vogels, J. (2021). Linguistics in the Netherlands. John Benjamins.
Dingemanse, M., Lier, E. van, & Vogels, J. (2021). Foreword. Linguistics in the Netherlands, 38(1), 1–3. doi: 10.1075/avt.00046.for PDF
McLaughlin, F., Dingemanse, M., Good, J., & Lüpke, F. (2021). Remembering G. Tucker Childs (1948-2021). Studies in African Linguistics, 50(1). PDF
Nielsen, A. K. S., & Dingemanse, M. (2021). Iconicity in Word Learning and Beyond: A Critical Review. Language and Speech, 64(1), 52–72. doi: 10.1177/0023830920914339 PDF
Pouw, W., Dingemanse, M., Motamedi, Y., & Özyürek, A. (2021). A Systematic Investigation of Gesture Kinematics in Evolving Manual Languages in the Lab. Cognitive Science, 45(7), e13014. doi: 10.1111/cogs.13014 PDF
van Leeuwen, T. M., Wilsson, L., Norrman, H. N., Dingemanse, M., Bölte, S., & Neufeld, J. (2021). Perceptual processing links autism and synesthesia: A co-twin control study. Cortex, 145, 236–249. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2021.09.016 PDF


Arkel, J. van, Woensdregt, M., Dingemanse, M., & Blokpoel, M. (2020). A simple repair mechanism can alleviate computational demands of pragmatic reasoning: simulations and complexity analysis. Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning. doi: 10.18653/v1/2020.conll-1.14 PDF
Burghoorn, F., Dingemanse, M., van Lier, R., & van Leeuwen, T. M. (2020). The Relation Between Autistic Traits, the Degree of Synaesthesia, and Local/Global Visual Perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(1), 12–29. doi: 10.1007/s10803-019-04222-7 PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2020). Recruiting assistance and collaboration: a West-African corpus study. In S. Floyd, G. Rossi, & N. J. Enfield (Eds.), Getting others to do things: A pragmatic typology of recruitments (pp. 369–421). Language Science Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2020). Resource-rationality beyond individual minds: the case of interactive language use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, 23–24. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X19001638 PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2020). Der Raum zwischen unseren Köpfen. Technology Review, 2020(13), 10–15. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2020). Between Sound and Speech: Liminal Signs in Interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 53(1), 188–196. doi: 10.1080/08351813.2020.1712967 PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Thompson, B. (2020). Playful iconicity: structural markedness underlies the relation between funniness and iconicity. Language and Cognition, 12(1), 203–224. doi: 10.1017/langcog.2019.49 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Perlman, M., & Perniss, P. (2020). Construals of iconicity: experimental approaches to form–meaning resemblances in language. Language and Cognition, 12(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1017/langcog.2019.48 PDF
Kendrick, K. H., Brown, P., Dingemanse, M., Floyd, S., Gipper, S., Hayano, K., Hoey, E., Hoymann, G., Manrique, E., Rossi, G., & Levinson, S. C. (2020). Sequence organization: A universal infrastructure for social action. Journal of Pragmatics, 168, 119–138. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2020.06.009 PDF
Rasenberg, M., Özyürek, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2020). Alignment in Multimodal Interaction: An Integrative Framework. Cognitive Science, 44(11). doi: 10.1111/cogs.12911 PDF
Tribushinina, E., & Dingemanse, M. (Eds.). (2020). Linguistics in the Netherlands 2020. John Benjamins.


Akita, K., & Dingemanse, M. (2019). Ideophones (Mimetics, Expressives). Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.477 PDF
Cuskley, C., Dingemanse, M., Kirby, S., & van Leeuwen, T. M. (2019). Cross-modal associations and synesthesia: Categorical perception and structure in vowel–color mappings in a large online sample. Behavior Research Methods, 51(4), 1651–1675. doi: 10.3758/s13428-019-01203-7 PDF
Dideriksen, C., Fusaroli, R., Tylén, K., Dingemanse, M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Contextualizing Conversational Strategies: Backchannel, Repair and Linguistic Alignment in Spontaneous and Task-Oriented Conversations. Proceedings of CogSci 2019, 261–267. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2019). “Ideophone” as a comparative concept. In K. Akita & P. Pardeshi (Eds.), Ideophones, Mimetics, Expressives (pp. 13–33). John Benjamins. PDF
van Leeuwen, T. M., van Petersen, E., Burghoorn, F., Dingemanse, M., & van Lier, R. (2019). Autistic traits in synaesthesia: atypical sensory sensitivity and enhanced perception of details. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 374(1787), 20190024. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2019.0024 PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2018). Redrawing the margins of language: Lessons from research on ideophones. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 3(1), 1–30. doi: 10.5334/gjgl.444 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Blythe, J., & Dirksmeyer, T. (2018). Formats for other-initiation of repair across languages: an exercise in pragmatic typology. In I. A. Nikolaeva (Ed.), Linguistic Typology: Critical Concepts in Linguistics (Vol. 4, pp. 322–357). Routledge. PDF
Floyd, S., Rossi, G., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Dingemanse, M., Kendrick, K. H., Zinken, J., & Enfield, N. J. (2018). Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude. Royal Society Open Science, 5(5), 180391. doi: 10.1098/rsos.180391 PDF
Majid, A., Roberts, S. G., Cilissen, L., Emmorey, K., Nicodemus, B., O’Grady, L., Woll, B., LeLan, B., de Sousa, H., Cansler, B. L., Shayan, S., de Vos, C., Senft, G., Enfield, N. J., Razak, R. A., Fedden, S., Tufvesson, S., Dingemanse, M., Ozturk, O., … Levinson, S. C. (2018). Differential coding of perception in the world’s languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(45), 11369–11376. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1720419115 PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2017). Brain-to-brain interfaces and the role of language in distributing agency. In N. J. Enfield & P. Kockelman (Eds.), Distributed Agency (pp. 59–66). Oxford University Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2017). Expressiveness and system integration. On the typology of ideophones, with special reference to Siwu. STUF – Language Typology and Universals, 70(2), 363–384. doi: 10.1515/stuf-2017-0018 PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2017). On the margins of language: Ideophones, interjections and dependencies in linguistic theory. In N. J. Enfield (Ed.), Dependencies in language (pp. 195–202). Language Science Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Akita, K. (2017). An inverse relation between expressiveness and grammatical integration: on the morphosyntactic typology of ideophones, with special reference to Japanese. Journal of Linguistics, 53(3), 501–532. doi: 10.1017/S002222671600030X PDF
Dingemanse, M., Rossi, G., & Floyd, S. (2017). Place reference in story beginnings: a cross-linguistic study of narrative and interactional affordances. Language in Society, 46(2), 129–158. doi: 10.1017/S0047404516001019 PDF
Fusaroli, R., Tylén, K., Garly, K., Steensig, J., Christiansen, M. H., & Dingemanse, M. (2017). Measures and mechanisms of common ground: backchannels, conversational repair, and interactive alignment in free and task-oriented social interactions. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2055–2060). PDF


Baranova, J., & Dingemanse, M. (2016). Reasons for requests. Discourse Studies, 18(6), 641–675. doi: 10.1177/1461445616667154 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Schuerman, W., Reinisch, E., Tufvesson, S., & Mitterer, H. (2016). What sound symbolism can and cannot do: testing the iconicity of ideophones from five languages. Language, 92(2), e117–e133. doi: 10.1353/lan.2016.0034 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Kendrick, K. H., & Enfield, N. J. (2016). A coding scheme for other-initiated repair across languages. Open Linguistics, 2, 35–46. doi: 10.1515/opli-2016-0002 PDF
Lockwood, G., Dingemanse, M., & Hagoort, P. (2016). Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(8), 1274–1281. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000235 PDF
Lockwood, G., Hagoort, P., & Dingemanse, M. (2016). How iconicity helps people learn new words: neural correlates and individual differences in sound-symbolic bootstrapping. Collabra, 2(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1525/collabra.42 PDF
Lockwood, G., Hagoort, P., & Dingemanse, M. (2016). Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, & J. C. Trueswell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1823–1828). Cognitive Science Society. PDF
van Leeuwen, T. M., & Dingemanse, M. (2016). Colour associations in synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes: A large-scale study in Dutch. Perception, 45, 333–334.
van Leeuwen, T. M., Dingemanse, M., Todil, B., Agameya, A., & Majid, A. (2016). Non-Random Associations of Graphemes with Colors in Arabic. Multisensory Research, 29(1–3), 223–252. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002511 PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2015). Folk definitions in linguistic fieldwork. In J. Essegbey, B. Henderson, & F. McLaughlin (Eds.), Language Documentation and Endangerment in Africa (pp. 215–238). John Benjamins. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2015). Other-initiated repair in Siwu. Open Linguistics, 1, 232–255. doi: 10.1515/opli-2015-0001 PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2015). Ideophones and reduplication: Depiction, description, and the interpretation of repeated talk in discourse. Studies in Language, 39(4), 946–970. doi: 10.1075/sl.39.4.05din PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Enfield, N. J. (2015). Other-initiated repair across languages: towards a typology of conversational structures. Open Linguistics, 1, 98–118. doi: 10.2478/opli-2014-0007 PDF
Dingemanse, M., Roberts, S. G., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Drew, P., Floyd, S., Gisladottir, R. S., Kendrick, K. H., Levinson, S. C., Manrique, E., Rossi, G., & Enfield, N. J. (2015). Universal Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems. PLOS ONE, 10(9), e0136100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136100
Dingemanse, M., Blasi, D. E., Lupyan, G., Christiansen, M. H., & Monaghan, P. (2015). Arbitrariness, iconicity and systematicity in language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(10), 603–615. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.07.013 PDF
Drijvers, L., Zaadnoordijk, L., & Dingemanse, M. (2015). Sound-symbolism is disrupted in dyslexia: Implications for the role of cross-modal abstraction processes. In D. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings, & P. P. Maglio (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 602–607). Cognitive Science Society. PDF
Lockwood, G., & Dingemanse, M. (2015). Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1246), 1–14. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01246 PDF
San Roque, L., Kendrick, K., Norcliffe, E., Brown, P., Defina, R., Dingemanse, M., Dirksmeyer, T., Enfield, N. J., Floyd, S., Hammond, J., Rossi, G., Tufvesson, S., van Putten, S., & Majid, A. (2015). Vision verbs dominate in conversation across cultures, but the ranking of non-visual verbs varies. Cognitive Linguistics. doi: 10.1515/cog-2014-0089 PDF
Verhoef, T., Roberts, S. G., & Dingemanse, M. (2015). Emergence of systematic iconicity: transmission, interaction and analogy. In D. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings, & P. P. Maglio (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2481–2486). Cognitive Science Society. PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2014). Making new ideophones in Siwu: creative depiction in conversation. Pragmatics and Society, 5(3), 384–405. doi: 10.1075/ps.5.3.04din PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Enfield, N. J. (2014). Let’s Talk: Universal Social Rules Underlie Languages. Scientific American Mind, 25, 64–69. doi: 10.1038/scientificamericanmind0914-64 PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Floyd, S. (2014). Conversation across cultures. In N. J. Enfield, P. Kockelman, & J. Sidnell (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology (pp. 434–464). Cambridge University Press. PDF
Dingemanse, M., Blythe, J., & Dirksmeyer, T. (2014). Formats for other-initiation of repair across languages: An exercise in pragmatic typology. Studies in Language, 38(1), 5–43. doi: 10.1075/sl.38.1.01din PDF
Dingemanse, M., Verhoef, T., & Roberts, S. G. (2014). The role of iconicity in the cultural evolution of communicative signals. In B. de Boer & T. Verhoef (Eds.), Proceedings of Evolang X Workshop on Signals, Speech and Signs (pp. 11–15). PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2013). Ideophones and gesture in everyday speech. Gesture, 13(2), 143–165. doi: 10.1075/gest.13.2.02din PDF
Dingemanse, M., Torreira, F., & Enfield, N. J. (2013). Is “Huh?” a universal word? Conversational infrastructure and the convergent evolution of linguistic items. PLOS ONE, 8(11), e78273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078273
Enfield, N. J., Dingemanse, M., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Brown, P., Dirksmeyer, T., Drew, P., Floyd, S., Gipper, S., Gísladóttir, R., Hoymann, G., Kendrick, K. H., Levinson, S. C., Magyari, L., Manrique, E., Rossi, G., San Roque, L., & Torreira, F. (2013). Huh? What? – A first survey in twenty-one languages. In M. Hayashi, G. Raymond, & J. Sidnell (Eds.), Conversational Repair and Human Understanding (pp. 343–380). Cambridge University Press.


Dediu, D., & Dingemanse, M. (2012). More than accent: linguistic and cultural cues in the emergence of tag-based cooperation. Current Anthropology, 53(5), 606–607. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2012). Advances in the cross-linguistic study of ideophones. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6(10), 654–672. doi: 10.1002/lnc3.361 PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2012). Coerced iconicity in writing and speech. SemiotiX, XN-8. PDF
Dingemanse, M., & Majid, A. (2012). The semantic structure of sensory vocabulary in an African language. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 300–305). Cognitive Science Society. PDF
Dingemanse, M., Hammond, J., Stehouwer, H., Somasundaram, A., & Drude, S. (2012). A high speed transcription interface for annotating primary linguistic data. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities, 7–12. PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2011). Ezra Pound among the Mawu: Ideophones and Iconicity in Siwu. In P. Michelucci, O. Fischer, & C. Ljungberg (Eds.), Semblance and Signification (pp. 39–54). John Benjamins. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2011). The Meaning and Use of Ideophones in Siwu [PhD dissertation, Radboud University]. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2011). Ideophones and the aesthetics of everyday language in a West-African society. The Senses and Society, 6(1), 77–85. doi: 10.2752/174589311X12893982233830 PDF


Dingemanse, M. (2009). The Enduring Spoken Word. Science, 323(5917), 1010b–11011. doi: 10.1126/science.323.5917.1010b PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2009). The selective advantage of body-part terms. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 2130–2136. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.11.008 PDF


Mostly for historical reasons I preserve a few reports and essays that have attracted some citations and secondary uses over the years.

Dingemanse, M. (2009, August 24). Noun classification in Siwu. CALL 39, Leiden. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2006). The Body in Yoruba: a linguistic study [MA Thesis]. Leiden University. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2006). The semantics of Bantu noun classification: a review and comparison of three approaches [MA Essay]. Leiden University. PDF
Dingemanse, M. (2005). A Sketch of Nobiin tone. PDF