Iconicity ratings

Iconicity ratings are a key tool in psycholinguistic studies of vocabulary. This figure shows the distribution of ratings for 14,000 English words in two ways: (a) A kernel density plot of the distribution of average ratings; the dashed line indicates a normal distribution with the same mean and standard deviation; (b) standard deviations across raters (y-axis) as a function of average rating (x-axis). Extreme values are rarer, but people agree more strongly on them. (Figure by first author Bodo Winter, open data here.)

Winter, B., Lupyan, G., Perry, L. K., Dingemanse, M., & Perlman, M. (2023). Iconicity ratings for 14,000+ English words. Behavior Research Methods. doi: 10.3758/s13428-023-02112-6 PDF